Joseph Haydn – 2009
CCB inaugura exposição sobre Haydn
A propósito do bicentenário da morte do compositor austríaco Joseph Haydn (1732-1809), o Centro Cultural de Belém inaugura a 9 de Dezembro, pelas 18:30, na Galeria Mário Cesariny a exposição Haydn on Tour, uma produção do Festival Eisenstadt, com direcção artística de Walter Reicher e o apoio da Embaixada da Áustria. Haydn on Tour é uma exposição documental que pretende abordar a vida e a obra de Joseph Haydn.
São 42 reproduções, dispostas cronologicamente, que nos levam aos locais onde este génio musical viveu, trabalhou e criou as suas mais obras mais conhecidas e de maior repercussão.
A exposição inclui ainda alguns excertos biográficos do compositor, relatos sobre os principais acontecimentos históricos da época e informações sobre as pessoas com quem trabalhou, os seus pares musicais, mecenas e outras pessoas que contribuíram para o seu sucesso.
Franz Joseph Haydn nasceu em 1732 em Rohrau, na fronteira entre a Áustria e a Hungria, perto de Viena.
Aos seis anos de idade iniciou os seus estudos com Mathias Frank. Aos oito anos foi para Viena, onde fez parte do coro dos pequenos cantores da Catedral de Santo Estêvão, em cuja escola completou os seus estudos gerais e musicais.
Em 1761, entra ao serviço do príncipe Paul Esterházy na qualidade de segundo mestre de capela. Primeiro em Eisenstadt, depois no Palácio de Esterházy, Haydn manter-se-á durante 30 anos ao serviço desta família, com toda a liberdade para se dedicar às suas práticas musicais. A fama de Haydn estendeu-se entretanto de Esterházy até a Áustria, Alemanha e Itália com a
apresentação e execução das suas sinfonias.
Em 1790, quando o príncipe Nikolaus morreu e o seu sucessor dispensou os músicos, Haydn deixa o palácio e parte para Viena, tendo aceitado o
convite do empresário Johann Peter Salomon para visitar Londres, onde permaneceu duas longas temporadas (1791-1792 e 1794-1795) que farão de Haydn o músico mais admirado do seu tempo. É neste período que se dedica à composição das suas últimas doze sinfonias.
Em 1795, ao regressar à Áustria, o príncipe Nicolaus II, filho de Anton, decide restaurar a capela. Nesta última fase da sua vida Haydn compõe quartetos, missas e oratórias (A Criação e As Estações) que renovam inteiramente o estilo e entusiasmam toda a Europa.
Este espírito divertido que brincava com a música e com os mestres deixou o mundo dos vivos em 1809.
A Criação de Haydn será tocada a 20 de Dezembro às 17:00, no Grande Auditório do Centro Cultural de Belém.
Serão intervenientes neste concerto o Coro Sinfónico Lisboa Cantat, a soprano Marlis Petersen, o tenor Thomas Walker e o barítono Dietrich Henschel, acompanhados pela Orquestra Metropolitana de Lisboa cabendo a direcção musical a Theodor Guschlbauer.
Theodor Guschlbauer, que conta com já quarenta anos de carreira, é hoje um dos nomes mais prestigiados directores de orquestra. A Sinfónica de Londres, a Filarmónica de Viena ou do Alla Scala de Milão, contam-se entre a extensa lista de orquestras que o maestro austríaco é regularmente convidado a dirigir. Neste Concerto de Natal estará à frente da Orquestra Metropolitana de Lisboa, do Coro Lisboa Cantat e de três cantores com craveira internacional para interpretar a A Criação de Haydn.
Baseada no Livro do Génesis, esta obra, por muitos considerada a obra-prima de Haydn, evoca as grandes perguntas e as grandes respostas acerca da origem da humanidade.
“Haydn on Tour”, a exposição, é inaugurada a 9 de Dezembro, pelas 18:30 e estará patente ao público na Sala Mário Cesarinny de segunda a sexta-feira das 14:00 às 18:00 | sábados, domingos e feriados das 14:00 às 19:00 | A exposição encerra ao público nos dias 14, 15, 24 e 25 Dezembro
HAYDN-MENDELSSOHN: ENTRE DOIS MUNDOS
18 de Janeiro, 17h00 – Grande Auditório do CCB
JOSEPH HAYDN – Sinfonia n.º 49, La Passione
Concerto em Dó maior para Violoncelo e Orquestra
FELIX MENDELSSOHN – Sinfonia n.º 4, Italiana
Em 2004 Sol Gabetta foi distinguida com o Prémio Crédit Suisse para Jovens Artistas que incluía um concerto com a Filarmónica de Viena, sob a direcção de Valery Gergiev, no qual interpretou Chostakovich no âmbito do Festival de Lucerna desse ano.
No Verão de 2006 foi lançado o seu disco de estreia para a Sony, com a Munich Radio Orchestra e o maestro Ari Rasilainen, com obras de Tchaikovski e Ginastera.
A temporada de 2006/2007 iniciou-se com a estreia de Sol Gabetta na Finlândia, com a Tampere Philharmonic e o maestro John Storgards. Foi ainda solista com a Filarmónica de Roterdão e Leonard Slatkin, com a Orquestra Nacional de Espanha, primeiro em Barcelona e depois em digressão pela Alemanha com concertos em Colónia, Frankfurt, Hanover, Dusseldorf e Bielefeld, sob a direcção de Joseph Pons, e com a Bern Symphony Orchestra e Andrei Bareijo. Sol Gabetta estreou-se em Londres com a Orquestra de Câmara de Londres dirigida por Christopher Warren-Green, tendo trabalhado ainda com a BBC National Orchestra of Wales, a Hallé Orchestra e André de Ridder e participado no Festival de Violoncelo de Manchester, na Primavera de 2007 a convite do director Ralph Kirshbaum.
Da temporada de 2006/2007 merece especial destaque a sua estreia em recitais com o pianista Henri Sigfridsson no Japão. Na Europa, estes recitais levaram o duo a Roma, Bergamo, Pádua e Milão. A este duo juntou-se depois a violinista Patrizia Kopatchinskaja para recitais em Viena, Paris e Ludwigsburg. É neste ano que Sol Gabetta lança o seu próprio festival – Solsberg – que tem a sede em Olsberg, perto de Basileia.
Os seus compromissos incluem concertos com a Orquestra Nacional da Radio France, Kremerata Baltica, Vienna Kammerphilharmonie e Orquestra Sinfónica de Viena (este último apresentado em Viena no Musikverein), St. Petersburg Symphony Orchestra, Orquestra de Câmara de Munique sob a direcção de Christoph Poppen, Basler Chamber Orchestra com Christopher Hogwood, Basel Symphony Orchestra, Orquestra Filarmónica de Buenos Aires e com a Prague Symphony no Festival de Música de Interlakener.
Sol Gabetta participou várias vezes no Festival Les Muséiques de Gidon Kremer em Basileia. No início da sua carreira, Sol Gabetta foi galardoada com o Prémio da Rádio Suisse Romande em Genebra, com o prestigiado prémio Natalia Gutmann para a melhor interpretação no Concurso Tchaikovski de Moscovo e, em 2004, foi-lhe concedida a condição de membro da Borletti-Buitono Trust.
Sal Gabetta terminou os seus estudos com David Geringas na Musikhochschule Hanns Eisler, em Berlim. Entre 1992 e 1994 foi bolseira da Escola Superior de Música Rainha Sofia, de Madrid. Prosseguiu os estudos com Ivan Monighetti na Musikakademie de Basileia, na Suíça
Sol Gabetta toca um violoncelo de G.B. Guadagnini, de 1759, graças a uma bolsa de Hans K. Rahn.
Desde Outubro de 2005 que Sol Gabetta se dedica ao ensino na Academia de Música de Basileia.
Haydn 2009 Ensemble Contrapunctus
20 de Janeiro, 21h00 – Auditório Acácio Barreiros
Integral dos Quartetos de Cordas de Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) – Ensemble Contrapunctus
O quarteto de cordas foi um campo de exploração musical e de expressão pessoal onde se condensou a essência do espírito da era clássica. Haydn libertou-o das suas origens como “divertimento” e revelou-lhe o potencial “dialogante”, capaz de influenciar o rumo da história da música; por isso o epíteto de “pai do quarteto de cordas” não podia ser mais merecido.
Os quartetos de Haydn nasceram em berço aristocrático mas destinavam-se a um número crescente de apreciadores da música de câmara de toda a Europa e a um florescente mercado editorial; foram por isso um veículo de “democratização musical”, num quadro mais intimista que o das sinfonias.
Evocando os duzentos anos da morte de Haydn, a Antena 2 promove ao longo de 2009 a audição e a gravação integral dos 76 quartetos que Haydn compôs ao longo de quatro décadas; um total de 22 concertos que percorre outras tantas cidades de todo o país.
O concerto a apresentar no Centro Cultural Olga Cadaval será o primeiro destes concertos.
O ENSEMBLE CONTRAPUNCTUS é um grupo cujo denominador comum é a paixão pela música e cujo objectivo é a colaboração entre músicos com forte empatia e elevada qualidade na execução do melhor e mais variado repertório da música de câmara. Tendo como núcleo de base os membros do Moscow Piano Quartet – o violoncelista Guenrikh Elessine, o violinista José Pereira, o violetista Alexandre Delgado e o pianista Alexei Eremine — o grupo tem uma composição variável que abrange as mais diversas formações da música de câmara, das mais invulgares ao consagrado quarteto de cordas.
Nessa última vertente, o grupo foi seleccionado pela Antena 2 para interpretar em 2009 metade da integral dos quartetos de Joseph Haydn, no âmbito da evocação dos 200 anos da morte do compositor.
Vienna New Years Day Concert 2009 – Joseph Haydn, Symphony Nr45, Satz
Joseph Haydn: Life and Works
Joseph Haydn was a very beloved person, esteemed by his contemporaries, diligent, humorous, affable, and a straight shooter who was not spoiled by his steep climb from humble conditions into the highest social circles.
From Choirboy to Conductor
Joseph Haydn was born on March 31, 1732, in Rohrau (Lower Austria), the second of twelve children of a coach-builder and a cook. His musical talent shows itself at a very early age.
At the age of six, he began receiving instruction in singing and instrumental music with a cousin in Hainburg (Lower Austria). One day, the conductor of Vienna’s St. Stephen’s Cathedral noticed little Joseph and brought the eight-year-old to Vienna as a choir boy.
For nine years, he enjoyed a – mainly technical – musical instruction; in addition, he was also much in demand as a solo singer in the mansions of the Viennese aristocracy.
In 1749, when his voice started to break, all of a sudden he was forced to look after himself. He found employment as a valet with the celebrated conductor Nicola Porpora at Michaeler House, which exists to this day, right next to St. Michael’s Church (where he played the organ). As an exchange, he received thorough musical instructions for five years – he was poor but happy in his room in the attic: “I could work on my worm-eaten piano and did not envy any king for his happiness.”
After a short employment at Wieselburg Palace (Lower Austria) and as director of music for Count Morzin in Lukawetz near Pilsen (in today’s Czech Republic), in 1760 he married Maria Anna Keller in St. Stephen’s Cathedral. She was the daughter of a wigmaker and was in truth his second choice – he would have preferred her sister. The couple had a childless marriage with not much happiness; rumor has it that Haydn had a few relationships “on the side.”
In the Services of Esterházy
In 1761 Haydn made a lucky career move: he entered the services of the rich Esterházy family in Eisenstadt.
Prince Nikolaus I. Esterházy (1714-1790) succeeded his brother Paul Anton on 17 May 1762 . He was to become Haydn’s patron and employer for nearly 30 years. His epithet “The Magnificent”, shows his delight in providing money to host extravagant entertainment and special celebrations. In his memoirs the poet Johann Wolfgang Goethe wrote of the “Esterházy fairyland”.
The Esterházy family was one of the richest and most influential within the Austro-Hungarian empire. In many ways, Nikolaus I. was an outstanding patron and Haydn, who came from a simple background, was the third most highly paid official, after the property manager and the personal physician of Prince Esterházy.
This financial ranking shows the important position Haydn had gained and the high esteem in which he was held: “my Prince was satisfied with all my work, I received applause (…) I was cut off from the world (…) and I was forced to become original”.
After 1768 Haydn is also active at the summer palace Esterháza in Fertöd, in today’s Hungary. During this time, he visited Vienna often; in 1785 he also met Mozart in his apartment (today Mozart House Vienna) and entered the same Freemason lodge as Mozart (Zur wahren Eintracht – True Harmony).
A Star in Great Britain
In 1790 Prince Nikolaus I. died. His successor showed no interest in music and within a few days disbanded the orchestra and choir and granted Haydn an annual pension.
Therefore Haydn agreed to compose 27 pieces for London concert manager Johann Peter Salomon and to have them performed in concerts, conducting them himself. When Mozart expressed reservations that Haydn did not even speak English, he said: “My music is understood in all the world!”
Haydn’s arrival in England on January 1, 1791 caused a stir – as much as the fact that Haydn was greeted at a court ball at St. James Palace by the Prince of Wales with a visible bow. In July 1791, Haydn received an Honorary Doctorate for Music from the University of Oxford. The solemn celebration lasted three days and took place in the Sheldonian Theatre in Oxford.
Haydn left the British Isles in June 1792 after two successful concert series. He traveled back to Austria via Bonn, where he met the talented young Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827).
In 1793, he bought the suburban house Obere Windmühle at Kleine Steingasse 73 (today it is a museum, the Haydn House, 6, Haydngasse 6) and started to live in it in 1797. Here he created his oratories “The Creation” and “The Seasons.”
In January 1794, Haydn traveled to England a second time – he was again a great success. The “Military Symphony” the most popular of all his symphonies during his lifetime, was performed for the first time. The 250 works that Haydn composed for his two London visits alone could easily stand for the life’s work of any composer.
Haydn received the great honor to be included in the programs of the “Ancient Concerts” as the only living composer. He also found official recognition by participating in the concerts of the English king George III (1738-1820) to whom he was introduced by George, Prince of Wales (1762-1830). The English king and his wife Charlotte tried to convince Haydn to stay longer in England and offered him an apartment in Windsor, but even they were not successful …
Move to Vienna and World Renown
During his past years Haydn lives again in Vienna where his last public appearance took place. One of the guests: Ludwig van Beethoven.
In March 1808, the old master was carried in his chair to his last public appearance at the assembly hall of the Old University(today Academy of Science, 1, Dr.-Ignaz-Seipel-Platz 2), where he attended the performance of his “Creation.” Another of the illustrious guests: Ludwig van Beethoven.
On May 31, 1809, at the age of 77, he died peacefully in the Haydn House, where he was taken care of for many years by a housekeeper and by his secretary Johann Elssler, father of the famous dancer Fanny Elssler. In his old age, it is said, he intoned daily the melody of his Imperial Anthem.
Napoleon, commander of the enemy troops occupying Vienna, showed his admiration for the composer: when Haydn was fading, he posted an honorary guard in front of his house.
Haydn’s first grave can be found in Vienna in Hundsturm Cemetery (today’s Haydn Park, 12, Gaudenzdorfer Gürtel) – only a memorial plaque with the – translated – inscription “I will not die completely” can today be found in an area that is not exactly inviting.
Followers of the science of phrenology which was then in fashion (they purport to be able to deduce intellectual abilities from the form of the skull) stole Haydn’s skull. After changing owners several times – a crime case of the first order – the skull reached the Mountain Church in Eisenstadt where the rest of Haydn’s remains rested since 1820.
Haydn House: The Artist’s Domicile and Haydn Museum
The exhibition in the Haydn House will be redesigned for Haydn Year 2009 and reopened on January 29, 2009.
A celebration which lasts three days will take place around Haydn’s 200th anniversary of his death on May 31, 2009. The garden of the Haydn House will be presented in the state of Haydn’s lifetime and Haydn’s works will be performed in many concerts.
The composer Johannes Brahms (1833 – 1897) was a passionate admirer of Haydn who diligently cared for the memory of his great idol – so there is also a Brahms Memorial in the Haydn House. One can see, among other things, Brahms’s clavichord, which supposedly was once owned by Joseph Haydn.
Napoleon, whose army at the time occupied Vienna, was a great admirer of Haydn’s; in May 1809, he posted an honorary guard in front of the house of the dying composer.
Joseph Haydn bought this house, then only a one-storey building, on Kleine Steingasse in 1793. He had it rebuilt, added storeys, and four years later moved into the rooms on the first floor overlooking the street. Here he wrote the greater part of the oratorios “The Creation” and “The Seasons”.
Thanks to careful refurbishment, today the wall paintings in the composer’s quarters correspond once more to their time. Haydn’s servant Johann Elssler lived here, the father of Fanny Elssler, the world-famous ballerina. The exhibition mainly focuses on the last years of the composer’s life, his personal environment and circle in Vienna and his death in this house on 31 May 1809. One of the last grand pianos played by Haydn is also on show.
Another room with furnishings and commemorative items is dedicated to the composer Johannes Brahms, who was born in Hamburg but lived mainly in Vienna from 1862 onwards. His work is regarded as the perfection of the Viennese classical style going back to Haydn.
St. Stephen’s Cathedral: Career Start as a Choir Boy and Marriage to Maria Anna
Searching for talented choir boys, the musical director of Vienna’s St. Stephen’s Cathedral visited the city priest of Hainburg in 1739. On this occasion, young Haydn sang for him and his musical talent was instantly recognized. Eight-year-old Joseph was taken in at the Kapellhaus near St. Stephen’s in Vienna as a choir boy.
There was another time when St. Stephen’s Cathedral played a role in Haydn’s life: On November 26, 1760, he married the oldest daughter of the Viennese wigmaker Keller, Maria Anna Aloysia (1729-1800) here, probably in gratitude and because he had been very close to the family for several years. It has been widely assumed that Haydn had been in love with Keller’s youngest daughter, Therese; she, however, entered a convent.
Haydn’s marriage was not a happy one: “My wife was unable to bear children and therefore I was less indifferent against the charms of other women,” is one of Haydn’s rare comments about his marital life. Mrs. Haydn was said to be uneducated and a spendthrift and without understanding for her husband’s genius.
Its melody would remain Austria’s national anthem until 1918 (Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser) and again from 1929 to 1938 (Sei gesegnet ohne Ende); since 1841 it has also been the melody of the German national anthem – at first together with Hoffmann von Fallersleben’s text asDeutschlandlied (Deutschland, Deutschland über alles). Its third verse (Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit für das deutsche Vaterland) is still sung today as the national anthem of Germany.
In the early nineties, remains of a Roman settlement were found on this square; today, they can be visited freely.
The catacombs, in which bodies do not decay due to special climatic conditions, are well worth a visit. Between 1631 and 1784, about 4,000 persons were buried here. Today, one can still see hundreds of caskets, some of them painted with flowers and skulls, and mummified corpses, some in Baroque frock coats and wigs. The most famous dead person in the vault is Pietro Metastasio, a friend of Haydn and the librettist of some Mozart operas.
Haydn in Schönbrunn: An Episode in Splendid Ambience
Schönbrunn Palace, the former summer residence of the Austrian emperor, is one of the most beautiful baroque palaces in all of Europe. Here too, Haydn left his mark …
The next time that Haydn performed at the palace, the painful memory of that debut had receded quite a bit, was three decades later. And Haydn was no longer a mere choirboy, but rather the music director in the employ of the Esterházy court. In that capacity he played with the prince’s orchestra in 1777, on the occasion of a visit from the Prince Elector of Trier before the imperial table.
A magnificent setting for glorious music. Since most of the 1441 rooms of the palace are in therococo style, the many white surfaces are richly adorned with 14-carat gold leaf, crystal chandeliers spread light, and ceramic stoves warmth.
Today you can use the “Grand Tour with Audio Guide” while you view 45 rooms of the palace – among others, the simple living and work chambers of Emperor Franz Joseph, the resplendent representation rooms, the mirror room, the Great Gallery, in which the Congress of Vienna danced and state receptions are still held today, the Chinese Round Cabinet, where Maria Theresia held secret meetings, or the rosewood-paneled Millions Room with exquisite miniatures from India and Persia. After visiting the palace, be sure to the enchanting Palace Park with the Palm House, the Gloriette, and the Zoo.
Austria Issues 2009 Commemorative Joseph Haydn Nine-Sided Coin
|Facevalue:||5 Euro||Alloy:||Ag 800|
|Date of issue:||14th Jan. 2009||Edge:||nine-sided, plain|
|Fineweight:||8 g||Mintage||UNC: 450,000 pcs.
SPUNC: 100,000 pcs.