Archive for the ‘ História ’ Category

‘Nouas terras, nouos mares, e o que mays he: nouo ceo nouas estrellas’

«Os portugueses ousaram cometer o grande mar oceano, descobriram novas ilhas, novas terras, novos mares, novos povos, e o que mais é: novo céu, novas estrelas.»

Pedro Nunes [Alcácer do Sal, 1502 — Coimbra, 11 de Agosto de 1578]

‘Anne of Cleves’, de Rick Wakeman

On this day in 1540 King Henry VIII of England annuls his marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves.

A Viagem de Vasco da Gama

Depois de uma noite de vigília na Ermida da Nossa Senhora de Belém, Vasco da Gama [1469-1524], beneficiando dos favores do Rei D.Manuel I [1469-1521], comandou a expedição destinada à Índia que partiu em 8 de Julho de 1497 da praia do Restelo ao leme da Nau São Gabriel, acompanhado do seu irmão Paulo e de Bartolomeu Dias [c.1450-1500].
Quando estava ao sul de Cabo Verde, a frota rumou a ocidente até passar perto da costa do Brasil; aproveitando os ventos favoráveis, atravessou de novo o Atlântico e Vasco da Gama tornou-se o primeiro europeu a navegar junto ao Cabo da Boa Esperança.

‘San Antonio de Padua’, de El Greco

Hoy se celebra el día de San Antonio de Padua, fraile franciscano del siglo XIII.

‘San Antonio de Padua’ – El Greco, c.1580

Esta es la única ocasión en la que el Greco representó a San Antonio de Padua (1195-1231), una de las grandes figuras de la espiritualidad franciscana. El de Padua aparece en primer término y en imagen de algo más de medio cuerpo, sosteniendo una rama de lirios o azucenas, y un libro abierto sobre cuyas páginas emerge una representación del Niño Jesús. Esta imagen, que haría alusión a la aparición milagrosa del Niño, se inscribe de forma bastante extraña en una suerte de medallón que fue incorporado más tardíamente a la pintura, como demuestra la radiografía de la obra. Hay que tener en cuenta además que la tela procede de un convento femenino, el de franciscanas de los Ángeles, en Madrid; las franciscanas siempre se han caracterizado por la devoción al Niño Jesús. El trazado piramidal, la corpulencia y sentido monumental de la figura, así como la construcción pictórica y el tipo de firma en mayúsculas son características del periodo inicial en España. Via.

Alfonso X ‘O Sábio’

Do mui talentoso Afonso X [1221-1284], proclamado Rei de Castela e Leão neste dia 1 de Junho em 1252, as Cantigas de Santa Maria, com mais de 400 composições, constituem o mais importante repertório musical da lírica medieval galego-portuguesa, iniciada nas cortes de Alfonso III [1245-79] e D. Dinis [1279-1325].

Por que trobar, prólogo do album Eno nome do Maria – Cantigas de Santa Maria, pelo Ensemble Antequera

Jeanne d’Arc est capturée à Compiègne

Le Mai 1430, Le duc de Bourgogne met le siège devant Compiègne. Jeanne pénètre, le 22 Mai, dans Compiègne, de nuit, à l’insu de l’ennemi, escortée d’une troupe de mercenaires italiens et de troupes royales commandées para Xaintrailles et La Hire.
Le lendemain, au cours d’une sortie offensive, Jeanne est capturée par les Bourguignons.

‘Melencolia I’, de Albrecht Dürer

Albrecht Dürer [21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528] – ‘Melencolia I’, 1514

Dürer’s Melencolia I is one of three large prints of 1513 and 1514 known as his Meisterstiche (master engravings). The other two are Knight, Death, and the Devil and Saint Jerome in His Study. The three are in no way a series, but they do correspond to the three kinds of virtue in medieval scholasticism moral, theological, and intellectual and they embody the complexity of Dürer’s thought and that of his age.

Melencolia I is a depiction of the intellectual situation of the artist and is thus, by extension, a spiritual self-portrait of Dürer. In medieval philosophy each individual was thought to be dominated by one of the four humors; melancholy, associated with glack gall, was the least desirable of the four, and melancholics were considered the most likely to succumb to insanity. Renaissance thought, however, also linked melancholy with creative genius; thus, at the same time that this idea changed the status of this humor, it made the self-conscious artist aware that his gift came with terrible risks.

The winged personification of Melancholy, seated dejectedly with her head reasting on her hand, holds a caliper and is surrounded by other tools associated with geometry, the one of the seven liberal arts that underlies artistic creation and the one through which Dürer, probably more than most artists, hoped to approach perfection in his own work. An influential treatise, the De Occulta Philosophia of Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim, almost certainly known to Dürer, probably holds the explanation for the number I in the title: creativity in the arts was the realm of the imagination, considered the first and lowest in the hierarchy of the three categories of genius. The next was the realm of reason, and the highest the realm of spirit. It is ironic that this image of the artist paralyzed and powerless exemplifies Dürer’s own artistic power at its superlative height. Via.

 

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